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Archive for the ‘corner of mouth lift’ Category

The Corner of the Mouth Lift For the Sad or Aging Mouth Correction

Friday, January 31st, 2014

When it comes to treating the aging face, most everyone immediately thinks about a facelift. While a facelift can be a variable concept depending upon how it is done, many patients assume that it is an effective cure for all parts of the face including the mouth. The reality is that lifting the downturned corners of the mouth is almost completely unaffected by a facelift…and trying to do so will likely create a very tight and unnatural facelift result that will leave the patient disappointed.

The reason a facelift can not change the sagging mouth corners is two-fold. First, the point of pull is simply too far away to be effective. The distance between the ear and the corner of the mouth is too distantly separated. Secondly and equally important is that their vectors are completely perpendicular to each other. The sagging corner of the mouth drops vertically, while a facelift pulls tissues laterally. A negligible pull from the wrong vector equals no improvement.

The corner of the mouth lift represents a simple but highly effective method for changing the downturned or sad mouth corner. It works because it attacks the problem directly, affecting its position directly over the problem and in the right vertical or upward direction. Its simplicity is matched by its effectiveness whether done in isolation or as part of a more extensive facial rejuvenation procedure.

Corner of Mouth Lift Design Dr Barry Eppley IndianapolisIn the November 2013 issue of the Archives of Plastic Surgery, an article appeared entitled ‘Descended Mouth Corner: An Ignored But Needed Feature of Facial Rejuvenation’. In this article, the descended mouth corner lift, also known as an anguloplasty, is presented. The authors treated 71 patients using the corner of the mouth lift technique with consistently good results, with just one requiring revision. They conclude that this procedure by itself and in combination with other small operations or even a full face lift can help rejuvenate the aging mouth area.

Corner of Mouth Lift in Indianapolis by Dr Barry EppleyThis is one of the few articles in the medical literature that has written about a mouth lifting procedure that has been around for decades. I would corroborate most everything the article has to say about the corner of the mouth lift with the exception of the number of revisions. Even though it is a very small procedure in surface area, it does create a scar line that goes slightly beyond the vermilion tissue of the mouth corner. While not usually an issue in older patients, some occasional scar touchups may be needed in younger patients with less tolerant skin.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Patient Testimonials: Corner of Mouth Lift

Saturday, November 2nd, 2013

Corner of Mouth Lift

‘Thank you very much for my corner of mouth lift. My mouth has changed now. I came home from United States last week and my friend saw me with my new mouth and she was amazed. She said to me that my mouth is marvelous and is much better now. She was happy and told me that my smile  is much improved. A big thank you for the operation on my mouth corners. I am very happy and am feeling much better as my mouth was getting very droopy in the past few years.’

Gwen H.

United Kingdom

Commentary

While many plastic surgery operations make big changes in how one’s face looks, few operations that are so small can make such a big difference as the corner of the mouth lift. The mouth that turns down, either from how it naturally developed or from aging due to the descent of surrounding tissues, makes one look sad or even mad. This appearance is usually quite contradictory to how one actually feels but the droopy mouth corners create that impression nonetheless. While Botox and injectable fillers can help push up the downturned mouth corners they offer only temporary fixes…and if not done well the mouth lifting effects can be less than desired. A corner of the mouth lift offers a permanent fix to the sagging mouth corner by removing the skin overhang and changing the position of the mouth corner (commissure) upward. Small scars at the corner of the mouth result from the lift but, if well placed and not overdone, they are not a long-term aesthetic issue. When done as a stand alone procedure, corner of the mouth lifts are done as an office procedure under local anesthesia.

While the corner of the mouth lift seems new, it is really an old procedure that was done long before Botox and injectable fillers were even in development. When there was no other way to change the corner of the mouth but skin excision, the old’ valentine’ corner of mouth lift was done. (the skin excision pattern was shaped like a heart)

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Case Study: Surgical Rejuvenation of the Aging Mouth

Wednesday, October 16th, 2013

 

Background: Aging affects all parts of the face and the mouth area is no exception. The changes of the lips and the perioral tissues are classic and include thinning of the lips, downturning of the corners of the mouth and the development of vertical lip lines. These central facial aging changes are unaffected by more peripheral procedures like a facelift. Rather they require a direct approach to their treatment and are not uncommonly done as part of a facelift to provide a more complete facial rejuvenation effect.

While injectable fillers are the mainstay of younger lip and mouth enhancements, the older aging mouth is less responsive to just pure plumping effects. It needs more help with actual mini-lifting prcedures that are designed just for the lips.

Case Study: This 62 year-old female was bothered by the constant frown of her mouth and the thinning of her upper lip. While she had always had a thinner upper lip, it had gotten even thinner as she has gotten older. Her goal was not to have really big lips but an upper lip that matched the size of her lower lip. But what really bothered her was the downturned corners of her mouth. This made he look mad all the time when she really wasn’t.

A lip rejuvenation plan was marked out that included an upper lip (vermilion) advancement, corner of the mouth lifts and fat injections into her marionette lines.

Under local anesthesia which included infraobital nerve blocks and direct local infiltration into the upper lip, a 3mm vermilion lip advancement was initially done with making the cupid’s bow area more accentuated. The tail ends of the vermilion advancements were left open in preparation for the corner of the mouth lifts. Corner of the mouth lifts were done by making an outward line of 7mms from the corners toward the tragus and turning that into a triangle as it curved toward open end of the lip advancement. Finally, fat was harvested from her abdomen from inside her bellybutton, concentrated and then injected from the bottom end of the marionette lines upward, placing 4ccs of fat per side.

There are many options for turning an aging or unhappy mouth area into a more rejuvenated one. While the most common technique that comes to mind are injectable fillers, they usually are inadequate for older lip and mouth area as the exclusive treatment option. To make lips fuller or to change the smile line in older patients requires skin removal and lifting techniques.

Case Highlights:

1) Lip and perioral aging is often accompanied by a combined thinning of the upper lip and downturning of the corners of the mouth.

2) Corner of the mouth lifts combined with an upper lip advancement creates a more complete lip rejuvenation effect.

3) Most perioral rejuvenation procedures can be performed under local anesthesia as an office procedure.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

The Global Differences in the Corner of the Mouth Lift

Wednesday, August 21st, 2013

 

Much of one’s facial expression has to do with the mouth or perioral area. While there are over 10,000 different facial expressions, most can be lumped into six major categories. One of these categories of major facial expressions is smiling of which the mouth plays a major role. Everyone knows that an upturned smile line conveys happiness and a downturned frowning one is unhappiness.

The lip line at rest is usually seen as a straight horizontal line with the corners of the mouth being level. Whether it is by aging or one’s natural mouth development, some people develop a downturning of the corners of the mouth creating a constant frown and an undesired mouth appearance. While many perceive that a facelift can lift up the corners of the mouth, this is not true as the point of the tissue pull is just too far away. Injectable fillers can create some uplifting of the corners of the mouth but the effect is not sustained and usually only of a minor improvement.

The one proven procedure to uplift or level out a frown is the corner of the mouth lift. This very simple procedure works because it removes tissue directly at the corner of the mouth and changes the position of the lateral commissure. It was described many decades ago and has been called the Valentine Anguloplasty procedure based on the shape of the skin cutout. It works so well that the plastic surgeon must be careful to not overdo it (which is very easy to do) lest the patient is left with a permanent joker’s smile.

A recent internet report out of Asia talks about the growing trend of the ‘mouth corner lift surgery’. They describe a procedure that is identical to the well known corner of the mouth lift. They give it the name ‘Smile Lipt’ because it not only lifts up downturned mouth corners but leaves one with upturned curls for a permanent smile effect. They provided the following before and after pictures to illustrate the effect of the ‘Smile Lipt.’

While some question whether these pictures are for real, they most definitely are. One of the telltale signs of a corner of the mouth lift are small scars on the skin outside of the vermilion or red part of the corner of the mouth. These scars are difficult to hide particularly in thicker Asian skin. Careful inspection of the skin outside of the corners of the mouth in the pictures shows the scars.

Such upturned mouth curls may be a desired fashion trend in Asia, but in America this is exactly the result one wants to avoid from a corner of the mouth lift. They may be cute mouth curls in one part of the world but a undesired joker’s smile in another.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Postoperative Instructions for Lip Lifts, Lip Advancements and Corner of Mouth Lifts

Sunday, January 27th, 2013

 

Surgical lip enhancements involve removing select areas of skin to increase the vermilion show of the lips or change the angle of the corner of the mouth. These are precise and measured amounts of skin removal that result in fine line scars either under the nose, along the lip edges or extending out from the corner of the mouth slightly.

The following postoperative instructions for excisional lip enhancement surgery are as follows:

1.  Lip lifts/advancements and corner of the mouth lifts have a minimal amount of postoperative discomfort. Few patients ever require pain medication and a few Tylenol or Alleve are all that most patients need for a few days after surgery.

2.  There are no dressings applied after lip and corner of mouth surgery. Only antibiotic ointment is used to keep the suture lines soft and supple, whose primary intent is to make suture removal eventually easier.

3. Be aware that your lips will get increasingly swollen over the next few days after surgery. This is normal and not a cause for concern. Lip swelling does not start to go down until three days after surgery and will take a week or two to go away completely. The use of ice packs on the lips is very useful the first day after surgery to control swelling and improve comfort. You may use them as long as you like. Corner of the mouth lifts have little to none of this after surgery issues.

4. The lips and corner of the mouth suture lines may get wet without any danger of increasing the risk of infection. So feel free to wash your face and shave (men) as needed.

5. The incision lines at the base of the nose (subnasal lip lift), lip lines (lip advancement) or corner of the mouth lift will have sutures that need to be removed in a week after surgery. (unless you are an out of town patient). Apply antibiotic ointment to them three times a day to keep them slightly moist. If any blood has accumulated on the suture lines during the first day after surgery, clean it off with a little water or hydrogen peroxide on Q-tips. There is no need, however, to use hydrogen peroxide on clean suture lines. Just apply the antibiotic ointment.

6. Your lips will feel a little tight when you open your mouth widely. That will take several weeks to a month to return to normal. You may stretch open your mouth and lips as much as feels comfortable. You may eat whatever you like.  Focus on liquids and soft foods for the first few days after surgery.

7. After sutures are removed and the incision lines healed (several weeks), massaging the lips and stretching them gently will help make them feel softer sooner and regain their normal suppleness again.

8.   You may return to any physical activity and work as soon as you would like based on your comfort level with pain and your facial appearance

9.   You may drive when you feel comfortable and can react normally and are off pain medication.

10. If any lip redness, tenderness, or drainage develops after the first week of surgery, call Dr. Eppley and have your pharmacy number ready.

Consent for Plastic Surgery: Lip Lifts, Lip Advancements and Corner of Mouth Lifts

Sunday, January 27th, 2013

 

Every plastic surgery procedure has numerous issues that every patient who is undergoing a procedure should know. These explanations are always on a consent form that you should read in detail before surgery. This consent form, while many perceive as strictly a legal protection for the doctor, is actually more intended to improve the understanding of the various lip enhancement procedures. The following is what Dr. Eppley discusses with his patients for these procedures. This list includes many, but not all,of the different outcomes from surgery. It should generate both a better understanding of the procedure and should answer any remaining questions that one would have.

ALTERNATIVES

Enhancements of the lips can be done by a variety of synthetic or fat injectable fillers to increase the size of the pink part of the lip. (vermilion) Whether the results achieved by injection techniques is comparable to that of tissue excision and lifting should be thoroughly understood before surgery.

GOALS

The goal of lift lifts and advancements is to shorten the distance between the base of the noses and the upper lip and increase the amount of vermilion show. A lip lift will increase the central lip pout and vermilion show. A lip advancement will increase vermilion throughout the whole lip from one mouth corner to the other. The goal of a corner of the mouth lift is to lift up the sagging mouth corners and create a more horizontal smile or lip line.

LIMITATIONS

There are limits as to how much the lip can be lifted or advanced and how much the corners of the mouth can be changed. The limits to these changes are based on trying to keep the lips looking natural and not overdone and to not making excessive visible scarring.

EXPECTED OUTCOME

Expected outcomes include the following: temporary bruising and swelling around the lips and the corner of the mouth, temporary lip numbness, permanent scars at the junction of vermilion-skin junction (lip lifts and advancements) and away from the corner of the mouth. (corner of mouth lift) All excisional lip procedures may create some temporary stiffness on movement and mouth opening. Healing of the scars and settling any scar irregularities is a process that takes months (6 to 12) to see the final result in many cases.

RISKS

Significant complications from lip surgery are very rare but could include infection. More likely complications could include aesthetic deformities such as asymmetry and irregularities of the vermilion-skin junction (lip lines) asymmetry of lip (vermilion)sizes or mouth corners, suture reactions along the incision lines, and under vs. overcorrection of the desired lip sizes or corner of the mouth changes. Any of these risks may require revisional surgery for improvement.

ADDITIONAL SURGERY     

Should additional surgery be required to adjust the  shape of the lips or corner of the mouth, this will generate additional costs.

Plastic Surgery’s Did You Know? Lip Lifts

Friday, July 6th, 2012

 

Lip augmentation is a very familiar and popular procedure. By injecting a variety of substances into the lips, they become bigger and more sensual. But not all lip issues can be adequately treated by injectable fillers alone, particularly older lips. Lips as they age often get longer, thinner and turn down at their corners. Adding volume rarely is the best solution. Facelift surgery does little to benefit the mouth area. But unlike the face, the lips can also be lifted. A lip lift can shorten the upper lip and give it more pout through an incision under the nose. The downturned corners can be reversed by a corner of the mouth lift. Volume through injectable fillers can also be done at the same time for additional rejuvenation. This look is consistent with what is portrayed in the sensous lips of models who have a short upper with a pout and a turned-up mouth. Such changes in the older lip can not be done with injections alone.

Case Study: Corner of the Mouth Lifts for the Frowning Face

Thursday, October 13th, 2011

Background:  Aging affects all facial structures, particularly those around sphincters or apertures such as the eye. Changes around the eye are commonly perceived because they are so visible and are part of every human conversation. But just like the eye, the mouth also ages in very characteristic ways. Lines, wrinkles and thinning lips are typical atrophic changes. But falling skin and fat from the side of the face can force down the corners of the mouth, creating a constant frowning or sad expression.

While downturning of the corners of the mouth can occur from the aging process, it can look very severe in those whose mouth corners are more naturally downturned anyway. I have seen very young patients in their twenties and thirties who have a ‘congenital frown’ due to a natural u-shape to their mouth. That will become worse as they age due to the push of the falling nasolabial fold tissues from above.

Treatment options for the downturned mouth can be either non-surgical or surgical. The choice between the two is partially based on the degree of  corner angulation. The use of synthetic injectable fillers can create an immediate effect by pushing up and filling out the corners. It can be effective for moderate degrees of downturn that are less than 45 degrees. In more significant cases with greater than a 45 degree angulation, only a corner of the mouth lift will work based on removing some of the overhanging skin and repositioning the corner of the mouth upward.

Case Study: This 48 year-old women was unhappy with the appearance of her mouth. She was bothered by her constant frowning appearance. People regularly asked if she was sad or unhappy. As a professional, this made her look angry and mad which did not give a beneficial impression.

On examination, the skin overhang of the corners of her mouth measured a 55 degree angulation downward. She had moderate marionette lines that were most deep near her mouth corners. Under local anesthesia a triangular-shaped segment of skin was removed just above the mouth corners, measuring 8mms long, 6mms high and a curved line connecting these two points of the triangle. The skin was removed down to the orbicularis muscle. The most lateral point of the downturned corner of the mouth was brought up and sewn to the middle of the upper line of the excised skin triangle. The skin and the lip vermilion was then sewn together, effectively repositioning the entire corner of the mouth upward to a more horizontal orientation. A small amount (.3cc) of Juvederm was then injected into upper marionette line just under the repositioned corner of the mouth on both sides.

 Dissolveable sutures were used for skin closure so she had no need to come back for suture removal. She sent a picture of her smiling six weeks after surgery, demonstrating the success of the operation both on her mouth and how she now feels about its appearance.  

Case Highlights:

1)      Downturning of the corners of the mouth, skin overhang and the development of marionette lines are common aging changes around the mouth

2)      A corner of the mouth lift removes the skin overhang and levels out the corners of the lips. It can be done under local anesthesia as an office prfocedure.

3)      Corner of the mouth lifts can be supplemented with  injectable fillers or fat injections to help fill out the marionette grooves below it.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Nips and Tucks for the Aging Mouth

Thursday, May 6th, 2010

The mouth area is not spared as the rest of the face ages. Most women focus on changes in the neck and jowls as well as around the eyes. And while there are some well known procedures that make great improvements in these facial areas (facelift, blepharoplasty), how to improve the mouth area is not so standard and well known.

The mouth looks older as a result of  numerous anatomic changes. The upper lip will get longer and thinner. The corners of the mouth start to turn downward. From the downturned corners, grooves extend towards the jaw line creating marionette lines. The nasolabial folds or lip-cheek grooves which ‘parenthesize’ the mouth become more pronounced and deeper. Vertical wrinkles develop on both the upper and lower lip running into the pink (vermilion) of the lip, often resulting in lipstick which bleeds into them.

While wrinkle reduction around the mouth can be done with various laser methods and injectable fillers, improvement in that alone is often not enough to make an overall youthful change. Like the rest of the face, the mouth area can benefit from various ‘nips and tucks.’

There are some small but very effective perioral (mouth) procedures that can create some subtle but significant lifting and upturning of the lips. Youthful changes come from having more exposed vermilion and a more even or horizontal smile line. (mouth corner to corner line) These perioral rejuvenation procedures include lifts of the lip, corner of the mouth, and smile lines.

A long upper lip can be shortened with an upper lip lift, often known as a subnasal or bullhorn lip lift. It is done to primarily shorten the aged long lip, but a small amount of increased upper teeth may result when the lips are slightly open. By using a wavy or bullhorn-shaped ellipse of skin under the nose, the central part of the lip is upturned. The key to this procedure is to remove skin only. If one removes any of the deeper muscle, the upper lip will get tight and look unnatural when smiling. There will be a few millimeters or relapse over the first six months after the lift.

 Rather than done under the nose, lip advancements are done lower at the actual border of the upper lip. It creates a different and more complete upper lip lift because it effects the entire horizontal width of the upper lip. Lip advancement achieves improved exposure of the vermilion and eliminates the bottom end of the vertical lip lines. A small strip of skin abobe the lip line is removed to make the whole upper lip look bigger as well as shortens upper lip length.

The corner of the mouth lift is the ‘cutest’ of the perioral procedures because it removes such a small amount of skin to achieve its effect. Its intent is to elevate the down turned corners of the mouth so that the smile line (lips at rest) becomes more horizontal. This makes one’s mouth appearance more perky. This is done by removing a small triangle or heart-shaped piece of skin above each corner which changes the location and angulation of the sides of the mouth.

Beyond the corners of the mouth, folds of skin may drape downward. This loose skin can be improved somewhat by a facelift but some patients may not want to invest that much effort for improvement. These “parachute” folds of skin can be removed, placing a fine line scar in the lower end of the cheek-lip groove. It also creates a small amount of  lifting of the corners of the mouth as well.

One of the great benefits to these procedures is that they can be done in an office setting under local anesthesia. This keeps the cost down compared to more extensive surgery. They can be combined with injectable procedures such as Botox and fillers as well as laser and light skin treatments. They are a great compliment to be done with a facelift, either before or after.

Nips and tucks of the mouth area will result  in some small scars as a trade-off for their rejuvenating effects. Minor scar revision and touch-ups may occasionally be needed as the margin of error or forgiveness of any scar abnormality is quite small in the very visible mouth area.

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana

Common Questions about Mouth Rejuvenation

Sunday, February 14th, 2010
  1. What happens to the mouth area with aging?

Like the rest of the face, aging affects the mouth by atrophy and sagging. This is manifest by lips that get thinner, the development of vertical lip wrinkles, corners of the mouth that turn down, and the appearance of marionette lines or folds. These changes collectively can give the mouth an invert U-shape or frowning look, making one look sad or even angry.

Rejuvenation of the mouth area is based on a variety of techniques including volume restoration (injectable fillers), lifting techniques (skin excision and rearrangement) and wrinkle reduction. (skin resurfacing)  

2. How do you improve thinning lips?

The most common and simple method for lip augmentation is through the use of synthetically-created injectable fillers. While over a dozen such fillers exist, not all are appropriate for injection into the lips. Those fillers based on hyaluronic-acid (hyaluron, a sugar molecule) produce a natural and soft fuller lip that is very well accepted. Based on their concentration, they may last anywhere from four to eight months between injection treatments.

Fat is another option for lip injection. It is generally done in the operating room when other plastic surgery procedures are being done. While it is the most natural lip filling material, it’s downside is that its survival is not predictable and some resorption does occur.

3. Are there any permanent lip augmentation procedures?

The appearance of a larger lip that is permanent is possible by changing the amount of visible vermilion. (pink part of the lip) This can be done by removing a strip of skin above (upper lip) or below (lower lip) where the vermilion meets the skin. The vermilion is then moved up or below to cover where the skin was removed. This produces a permanent enlargement of the lip…at the price of a fine line scar along the lip line. This procedure is known as a lip or vermilion advancement and can be used on either the upper or the lower lip.

The upper lip vermilion can also be lifted without removing skin directly above the lip line. By removing a strip of skin from beneath the nose, rather than lower at the lip line, the central part of the upper lip can be lifted to show more vermilion. Known as a lip lift, it can only be used on the upper lip (there is no nose on your chin!) and it does not lift the sides of the upper lip which are outside of the nose.

4. Can a facelift help get rid of my mouth frown?

Downturning of the corners of the mouth is a common perioral sign of aging. Although there are some people who have it naturally even when they are young. Contrary to what many people believe, it is not possible to lift the corner of the mouth (commissure) with a pull that comes from the side. (lateral) In addition, the point of pull is far away (by the ear) from the commissure so it would have little effect on it even if it was from the right direction.

5. What is the best way to get my corners of mouth lifted back up?

Changing the orientation of the corner of the mouth to any significant degree requires a procedure that is done directly on it. Known as a corner of the mouth lift (COML), a triangle of skin is removed just above the commissure. Some plastic surgeons remove a triangle, others remove a heart-shape piece of skin. Either way, the corner is moved up to where the skin was removed. This little procedure can make a big difference in where the corner of the mouth is located. The COML is a small but powerful procedure that,if not done carefully, can actually turn the mouth corners up too far creating what is known as a  joker’s smile deformity.

If the corner’s of the mouth is not turned down too severely, the use of injectable fillers can have a mild lifting effect. 

6. What can improve the lines that run down from the corners of my mouth?

Vertical grooves or folds develop from the corners of the mouth down to the jawline because of the development of jowling. Loose and sagging skin falls forward toward the mouth and chin where it bunchs up against the more fixed skin of the chin. This creates a mound or fold which gives the appearance that there is a groove or line in front of it. This also makes any downturning of the corner of the mouth look worse.

Injectable fillers can certainly soften the appearance of the marionette lines, although they are only temporary. They can also be improved from the pull of a facelift and such tissue repositioning directly treats the cause of the problem.

In older patients who do not want a facelift or who have had one and have developed recurrent marionette lines due to inelastic skin, one can undergo a direct fold excision. A lenticular-shaped segment of skin is removed directly along the fold. While it does create a fine line scar, it is very effective at reducing its appearance.

7. How do you treat lip wrinkles?

Lip wrinkles develop as a direct result of the underlying action of the orbicularis muscle. When combined with thin skin, the appearance of vertical lip lines is inevitable. Small amounts of Botox can be used to soften the muscle action but too much will affect the way one smiles. Therefore, it is more effective to either try and fill the larger wrinkles directly and/or resurface the lip skin. The best results come from the simultaneous use of both methods. Laser resurfacing is a commonly used method that will soften the depth of most lip wrinkles. Whether fractional laser resurfacing is better than traditional laser methods is a matter of current discussion. Old-style dermabrasion is a time-proven technique for very deep wrinkles that is more effective than laser resurfacing in these more severely wrinkled lips. 

Dr. Barry Eppley

Indianapolis, Indiana


Dr. Barry EppleyDr. Barry Eppley

Dr. Barry Eppley is an extensively trained plastic and cosmetic surgeon with more than 20 years of surgical experience. He is both a licensed physician and dentist as well as double board-certified in both Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. This training allows him to perform the most complex surgical procedures from cosmetic changes to the face and body to craniofacial surgery. Dr. Eppley has made extensive contributions to plastic surgery starting with the development of several advanced surgical techniques. He is a revered author, lecturer and educator in the field of plastic and cosmetic surgery.

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